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The Indonesian Phinisi
What are they? Where do they come from? What are they used for?
Copyright 2001 - 2012 Michael Kasten
The Evolution of an Indigenous Wooden Sailing Vessel
The "modern" wooden 'Pinisi' type has been derived from similar craft that have been in use in and around Indonesia for several centuries. According to some sources, similar types have existed prior to the 1500's, such as the Arabian Dhow.
The sailing 'Pinisi' hull form in many ways resembles a cross between two traditional American sailing vessel types, the Pinky Schooner and the Tancook Whaler, even though the 'Pinisi' hull type pre-dates those Western hull forms by centuries... In other words, in its original form the 'Pinisi' was a double ended hull type, having sharply raked stem and stern post. There was not a centerline rudder however, as with the American craft. Instead the local Indonesian craft in the past most often made use of twin rudders, one on each aft quarter.
Used both as transport and as cargo vessels, the craft we are calling 'Pinisi' (variously spelled Pinissi, Pinisiq, or Phinisi) have traditionally been built on the beach, where the logs have come from the forests of Sulawesi (Celebes) and Kalimantan (Borneo), then transported to the boat building sites.
Historically, several interesting rituals and ceremonies have been part of building such a vessel, beginning with choosing the right trees for critical parts of the structure. Just as with traditional wooden boat building in the West, various rituals continue throughout the building process to initiate and celebrate each stage, such as the all important laying of the keel.
The 'Pinisi' Tradition
A few clarifications of terminology are in order...
The Builders: Although the builders of these craft are commonly lumped under the category of Bugis peoples, there are four cultural sub-sets of boat builders to be separately distinguished in South Sulawesi (per the writings of Horst Liebner). The primary groups are the Konjo of the southern tip of South Sulawesi (from near the towns of Ara, Bira, and Tanah Biru), the Mandar of West Sulawesi to the north of Makassar, the Bugis from the region near Wajo on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Bone (the central gulf between the two halves of Sulawesi), and the Makassarese from the region around the city of Makassar. Among these groups, the Konjo of South Sulawesi appear to have had the primary and most influential role as boat builders.
The Vessels: Technically, the term 'Pinisi' refers to the rig itself. In particular 'Pinisi' refers to the usual gaff-ketch type of rig. Locally this rig is referred to as a "seven sail schooner" even though the aft gaff sail is slightly smaller than the forward gaff sail, in fact making it a ketch rig.
Per Horst Liebner, the correct term for the sharp-stern sailing craft is 'palari' or 'lamba' among the Konjo boat builders of South Sulawesi. When the stem and stern post are straight, and are set at a sharply raked angle to the keel, the hull form is the 'lamba' as opposed to the 'palari' which make use of curved timbers for both stem and stern.
Since the term 'Pinisi' has come to be commonly applied to the hull form as well, we will use the word 'Pinisi' here to refer to the sailing hull type for the purposes of our discussion...
These 'Pinisi' have traditionally been built in a variety of sizes. Although in the past the craft tended to be smaller, it is not uncommon to find 30 to 40 meter vessels under construction, with an occasional Pinisi ranging up to around 50 meters (close to 165 feet on deck) or larger.
The widespread use of a sharply raked stem and stern post is simply the practical result of making efficient use of the timber lengths that can be conveniently brought down from the forest. In this way the vessel can be quite large and still have a relatively modest length of keel timber. Conveniently, it also makes them very good sea boats!
In many Indonesian boat building locations, good timber has become difficult to obtain, therefore costly. Many builders have begun using shorter and shorter timbers, resulting in a compromised hull structure, particularly in larger craft. With many of the ritual ceremonies becoming less and less common, some may suggest that this too has conspired against the longevity of the ships.
One very significant improvement in the quality of available timber has been made possible by the Konjo builders themselves. . . The builders of larger vessels have actually re-located! Quite a number of the Konjo builders from Southwest Sulawesi have simply moved, in order to be close to larger supplies of good quality timber.
In so doing, the builders of Southwest Sulawesi have literally carved a new building site and a new village out of the jungle in Kalimantan (Borneo). Several new building sites are located in Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan) and Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), on the banks of rivers close to the supply of timbers. It is here that they have been able to obtain the size and quality of timbers necessary for building wooden vessels of up to 50 or so meters in length.
Presently (2008) the boatbuilding sites in Kalimantan Selatan have fallen out of favor. The most advanced of these builders have sought new sites located farther in Kalimantan Timur. These newly favored sites are in the regions of Sangkulirang and Berau. When asked about this our friend and master builder Pak Tandra simply says, "We are boat builders. We will always follow the wood!"
Pinisi Hull Structure
In prior years, teak may have been one of the preferred woods to use for the structure, although locally it is considered rather soft and inferior. Since teak is not especially favored and is actually no longer plentiful, other tropical hardwoods are used. Presently in Indonesia, Ironwood and Bangkirai are preferred for boat structures.
Obtained from the low land forests of Kalimantan, Ironwood is locally called Kayu Ulin (eusideroxylon zwageri). One of the hardest woods in Indonesia, Ironwood has a specific gravity of 0.88 to 1.19...! Although quite heavy, it has excellent physical properties and is not vulnerable to termites or other tropical wood eating insects or fungus.
Kayu Bangkirai (shorea leavifolia) is also highly favored. Slightly less heavy than Ulin, Bangkirai makes excellent planking, decking, stringers, and upper structure.
Many other tropical woods are locally used, most of which have proven to be inferior for one reason or other.
Built in the same way as the Indonesian Perahu type of hull, Pinisi have always been assembled using wooden pegs to join the timbers. We would call the fasteners " trunnels" or tree nails.
The sequence of assembly is different than we in the West would ordinarily assume. First the keel is laid, then the stem and stern post are erected, as usual. Then however, rather than setting up the whole array of sawn frames or 'mold frames' these vessels are built by applying the planking first..!
First the planks next to the keel (the garboard planks) are fit and pegged to the keel. Then the next planks are pegged to the garboard planks using "blind" dowels along the edges of the planks. One by one, additional planks are added until there is the shape of a boat. This of course is all done by "eye" according to the experience of each master builder.
With the planking nearly completed, frames are fitted into the hull shell. The frames are pegged to the planks, to the keel, and to each other where the frame segments are joined. The frame butt ends either lap across the keel (Sulawesi style), or are joined to a floor member (more common in Kalimantan), depending on the tradition from which the individual boat builders have come.
This "planking first" approach may seem odd to our rigidly defined approach to shaping a ship in the West, but this is as the builders among the Indonesian islands have done it since no one knows when. This is very much the most common method used throughout Indonesian, Malaysian, and other South and Southeast Asian waters, and the method has served the people very well indeed.
Different Boatbuilding Methods...
Clinker Built Boats: As built by Western boat builders, 'clinker built' boats have each plank's lower edge lapped over the plank below. The laps are fastened with clench nails that function somewhat like rivets all along the overlap. The clench nails go from outside inward, then are bent over slightly onto dome shaped washers called roves (pronounced 'rooves') on the inside. In the West in modern times, the fastenings are usually bronze. In prior times, both in the West and elsewhere, the lap would have either been sewn with sinew or other strong fibers, or would have been fastened with 'trunnels' (tree nails).
With clinker built boats, the frames are applied afterward and are virtually always steam bent or laminated out of thinner strips, glued in place. In the West, clinker built boats are almost always built over mould frames, though if the frames are laminated, one can create the laminated frames first, attach them to the keel, then begin planking onto the frames.
In the West, small clinker boats are often built upside down, bigger ones upright. The clinker style produces quite a light structure that is very rigid. Clinker style planking is usually reserved for smaller craft. There is no absolute boundary, but presently somewhere around 40 feet on deck is where these Clinker built types give way, and 'Carvel' planking begins to dominate.
Carvel Built Boats: Carvel planking refers to the method of planking where the planks are placed edge to edge onto frames, which are placed first. By this method, the planks are fastened only to the frames.
The 'Pinisi' Method: In the areas surrounding the Indian Ocean, throughout Southeast Asia, and in some of the SW Pacific, the planking is done first, prior to the framing being placed, much as with a clinker built boat, but with the planks placed edge to edge. In order to do this, the planks are "blind edge fastened" to each other.
In centuries past, edge fastening was accomplished by sewing the plank edges together. In current times on both larger and smaller craft, the plank edges are blind edge fastened using wooden dowels, locally called 'passak.'
Throughout these regions, mould frames are not used. Instead the boats are shaped "by eye" following the traditions of the local builders in each area. After the planks are in place, frames are then fitted into the emerging hull shape and fastenings are added to attach the frames to the planks.
The planking on all 'Pinisi' is therefore what Westerners would refer to as "carvel" even though the planking is erected and fastened similarly to the "clinker" style of planking.
Although historically the Pinisi builders used 'passak' (trunnels) exclusively for edge fastening the planks, iron drifts have now become commonplace, placed about every fourth 'passak.' These iron drifts and steel bolts have not replaced 'passak' altogether. 'Passak' are still used at the plank scarfs, for the majority of the plank edge dowels, and for fastening every other plank to the frames. Steel bolts are then used to fasten the remaining intermediate planks. The steel bolts extend all the way through to also fasten the 'Lepe Lepe' (ceiling stringers) inside the frames.
Per the writings of Adrian Horridge, the introduction of metal fastenings took place after the motorization of these vessels. This system is very strong... it makes ultimate sense structurally.
Decks... East vs. West...
Several notes here regarding the deck structure... First though, it should be noted that it is extremely rare indeed that a wooden vessel's deck does not leak somewhere...! Boatbuilders have used various strategies to address this situation. Here is a brief summary of what has proven to work best, and why...
Commercial / Cargo Vessel Decks
On a cargo Phinisi built in Indonesia, and on any commercial traditional wooden vessel or ship built in the West, the decks will always be a single layer, and they will be caulked and then 'paid' with a mixture stuff to finish the seam.
In the West the caulking would first be a layer of spun cotton in the root of the seams, which would be topped with oakum. Both would be hammered in to the seam using a mallet and a caulking iron. After that, the seams would traditionally be 'paid' using a mixture of tar and rosin. The rosin used is essentially the same stuff that's used for a violin bow... which makes it 'squeak' and vibrate the strings...!
The tar-to-rosin ratio is adjusted according to climate. On Alaskan fishing vessels for example, not much rosin is required to stiffen the tar. For boats in the tropics, quite a lot more rosin is used. The objective is to keep the tar stiff enough so that it does not soften in the sunlight to the point where it will "track" all over the deck when being walked on, but not so stiff as to be inflexible or brittle... This is the traditional method for commercial wooden vessels and it is not varied from too much if at all in the West.
On a cargo Phinisi, the decks are likewise always single layer. In Indonesia, all of the methods used in the West are accomplished in exactly the same way, however the materials used are quite different. If done traditionally, the deck planks are first caulked using a fine fluff gathered from a specific type of palm tree, then topped with more coarse fibers from another type of palm, both of which are worked into the seams using a mallet and a tool similar to a Western caulking iron. The deck planks are then 'paid' (i.e. topped off) by sealing the seams with a rosin-like substance. This stuff is a locally derived natural substance that is essentially boiled tree sap from a specific type of tree. If I discover what tree they use, I will include that information here...
The traditional Indonesian methods and materials appear to work just as well as any of the traditional Western methods or materials, if not better. The deck seam sealant (boiled tree sap) does stay sufficiently hard so it does not track around the deck in the tropical heat, and it is more clear (i.e. not black tar based) so even if it did soften, the tracks would not be objectionable.
In the West, the decks are either left 'dry' or they are coated with boiled linseed oil and / or tung oil combined with just enough Japan dryer to get it to 'set up' so it is not sticky. In either case, the decks will always be regularly sloshed with sea water to keep them clean and to preserve them, as well as to keep them 'swelled up' to help prevent leaks.
In Indonesia, we have observed the use of a similar deck coating substance on the well-built cargo Phinisi, the composition of which I do not know, but which has a very similar appearance to linseed oil. Probably it is a tree sap derivative.
In Indonesia a number of recent attempts have been made to substitute other materials such as nylon cordage for the caulking (which is terrible because it is a synthetic, does not 'soak up' and does not give), combined with epoxy for the seam compound (also terrible because it does not hold up in the sunlight and does not flex sufficiently). Both of these are quite a lot more expensive than traditional materials, the epoxy in particular (which is also toxic), and they do not in the end provide any better service.
In other words, if single layer decks are used, strictly traditional materials and methods are very much to be encouraged in order to seal the deck seams, as would be done for a cargo or fishing vessel.
On yachts though, several departures from these traditional methods are used. The more successful of them, I will describe as follows:
Yachties often want to make use of teak top decks, as well as some alternative to tar and rosin. Most commonly this approach takes the form of a plywood or planked sub-deck, topped with a separate teak deck.
If the sub-deck is of planking, then first the sub-deck planks are caulked and 'paid' in exactly the same way as if it were a single layer deck - using the same methods and materials as described above.
After that, the deck is sealed in a way similar to the way a flat roof is waterproofed, i.e. using a method similar to a 'hot roof.' Typically a layer of tar is applied onto the sub-deck which is then overlaid with heavy tar impregnated felt (we often call it Irish Felt).
After the sub-deck is thoroughly sealed, it will then be planked over with a layer of teak decking of lesser thickness. In Indonesia an excellent teak alternative is available, locally called Kayu Bangkirai (shorea laevifolia, also known as shorea laevis). These top-deck seams are not 'caulked' with any kind of fibers, however when finished the seams are 'paid' with a sealant that is poured or squeezed into pre-machined grooves in the planking.
Typically on yachts, in order to avoid tar, there are a variety of other kinds of seam sealant used. The most successful of these tar-substitutes in the West is one form or other of Thiokol which cures to a rubbery mastic that does not 'track' around the deck. Boatlife is one type of seam sealant that uses Thiokol, however the best of these products is always two-part.
Once applied, the seams need to be sanded flush. Usually the decks will be left 'dry' so the bond is not broken (wood to Thiokol) by penetration of any oils. This seam compound regularly needs to be reefed out and renewed (i.e. every few years) - and more often in the tropics.
Which Deck Is Best...???
Either method will work very well if it is done in a traditional manner using traditional materials and good workmanship. In other words, this choice is primarily a matter of preference, i.e. whether you want the 'teak decking' finish and look, or if you will be happy with a more commercial look to the top deck.
I have specified details for both methods, since there is no structural reason to prefer one over the other. The total thickness will be the same in either case.
In my own view, I do not object to the commercial look of a single layer deck. If it is done nicely and maintained well, it looks every bit as 'right' as a teak yacht deck - and also looks a bit more authentic on a traditional craft.
If the deck is constructed of two layers, the tar and felt paper (or equal / similar stuff) layer is quite important to get right. This layer will ideally be done in exactly the same way one would seal a flat roof on a house, as long as 'flexible' materials are used and the thickness is adequate.
Whether the decks are single layer or double layer, it is inevitable that planked wood decks will eventually leak. With a single layer deck, though it will in all likelihood leak more often, it will be far easier to find the leaks and fix them.
Phinisi Sailing Rig
According to most sources, Indonesian and Malaysian sailing craft of all sizes originally carried a triangular sailing rig of a type that is still in use by many of the smaller craft in Indonesia. With various Asian and Western influences in the last several centuries, some of the larger craft began to make use of rectangular sails similar to the Lateen or Lug rig, some of which are also still in use today.
The 'Pinisi' have been among the largest of the surviving local sailing craft. During the last hundred years or so, the local sailing craft adopted the Western fore and aft gaff ketch rig. This rig ordinarily carries three jibs, two gaff sails, and a tops'l above each gaff. These boats are referred to as Pinisi' or alternately may be called "seven sail schooners."
Though it may have the look of a Western type of gaff rig, a few unusual features make the 'Pinisi' sail rig unique. First, the gaffs are left "standing." The sails are laced to the mast and to the gaff. In order to reef the sails, they are "brailed" to the spars. This is a very old method, but one that works well. Another difference is that on the Pinisi, the forward mast and the bowsprit are built as a tripod or bipod, depending on the local tradition. This makes practical use of conveniently available timber sizes.
For more information about the difference between the traditional Phinisi sailing types vs. the more 'modern' motorized "KLM" cargo vessel types, please visit our Sailing Phinisi web page.
Until the mid to late 1970's, the large fleet of cargo carrying Pinisi throughout Indonesia were strictly sailing vessels. Since around 1978, there has been a push to motorize the fleet of sailing Pinisi. The presence of an engine has changed these craft rather dramatically.
Currently, the vast majority of the local cargo fleet have been given engines. As a result, they are now referred to as 'KLM' for Kapal Layar Mesin, literally translated as "Boat-Sail-Machine" or "Motor Driven Sailing Vessel" more simply called a "Motor Sailor."
Even though the engines being used in most local Indonesian craft are always of a very small size in relation to the size of the vessel, per Adrian Horridge many of these engine installations seem to have resulted in the demise of the vessel itself. The presence of an engine allows the vessels to be used in ways that were not possible under sail alone. For example, the boats can now be driven against the sea and weather. The resulting stress on the structure seems to have conspired to shorten the life of these motorized vessels.
As a result, the presence of an engine has encouraged a number of changes, both to the hull shape, and to the structure.... One extremely visible change has been to move away from the traditional "double ended" hull form which we have referred to above as embodying the true 'Pinisi' type.
The KLM (motorized craft) have preserved the forward half of the traditional 'Pinisi' type, complete with fore mast, gaff sail, tops'l, bowsprit and three jibs. The fore mast and gaff are used for loading and off loading cargo, as well as to hang sails as emergency propulsion in the event of engine failure. Under Indonesian law, the presence of the sails allows a substantial tax break for the cargo vessels, so the forward rig is likely to persist for some time to come.
Gone though is the aft mast and sails, and in its place is a large cabin structure containing the bridge. Although the bow remains virtually identical to the sailing Pinisi types, the KLM (motorized vessels) are given a wide overhanging stern. Additionally, the keel is extended farther aft in order to provide support for a rudder and to provide an aperture for the propeller.
The presence of engines in this fleet of wooden vessels has forced changes to the structure as well. In addition to the usual 'wooden peg' fastened plank and frame structure, iron drifts and bolts are now used throughout.
A further refinement to this would naturally be the use of hot dip galvanized bolts throughout, which oddly is relatively rare in Indonesia, primarily due to its cost. In the motorized fleet, in my view an additional refinement is needed; one that would allow the structure to better handle the stresses of an engine installation. This would simply be to add substantial structural bulkheads at each end of the engine space, combined with a pair of robust and long length engine bed timbers in order to spread the engine's forces over a much larger portion of the hull's structure. Although we have seen substantial bulkheads being used, we have not observed any vessels with heavy duty long length engine girders.
Throughout Indonesia, virtually all of the motorized Pinisi are vastly under-powered. A KLM of some 35 to 40 meters in size will ordinarily be given an engine of somewhere around 200 hp. This is adequate for perhaps 5 knots in mild conditions. Many of these craft are given even less power in proportion to their size. They are consequently quite slow, but very economical in terms of fuel use.
The Phinisi as a Charter Yacht
36 Meter Phinisi Silolona: In 2001 we were asked to design a new and improved, yet highly traditional Indonesian Pinisi. During the summer of 2001 we journeyed to Sulawesi to research these types, and then to Kalimantan Selatan in order to actually loft the body view of the hull and construct mould frames to guide the shape.
The intent with this new vessel was multi-faceted. One of the primary goals was to create a traditional, indigenous sailing 'Pinisi' for use as a charter vessel throughout the eastern islands of Indonesia. Additional goals have been to provide much greater strength and longevity of structure than is lavished upon local craft. Our aim in so doing has been to reduce maintenance, to provide a high degree of comfort, improve the performance under power, and to increase the long term safety of the ship.
We made use of the traditional "seven sail schooner" Pinisi rig, along with traditional rigging methods wherever possible (see the drawing above and the photograph below). With all of this, of course the key ingredient has been good planning and thorough follow-through in order to assure the successful combination of tradition with newly defined requirements. As one fellow so aptly noted when touring aboard, "Three hundred fifty tons of Borneo Ironwood definitely gets your attention...!" Please check out our web page on the Silolona for a complete introduction to this vessel.
50 Meter Sailing Phinisi: Early in 2007 we were asked to create a new 50m Pinisi design that would make use of the traditional rig 'styling' but that would be much more capable under sail. You can review this design at our 50m Phinisi web page. At around 650 metric tons, this is nearly twice as big as the original 36m Phinisi. Weighing over 1.4 million pounds, this is really quite a large wooden vessel..!
30 Meter Sailing Phinisi #1: Then late in 2007 we were asked to design a new 30m Pinisi that would be capable under sail. At around 250 metric tons, this is considerably smaller than the 350 metric ton Silolona. With a focus on good sailing performance, plus a charter-friendly layout, this design holds very good promise. In 2008 with the ink barely dry on the preliminary drawings and documents, construction was already under way. Yikes...! A bit more advance planning is definitely preferred.
30 Meter Sailing Phinisi #2: In 2009 we created an adaptation of the 30m Sailing Pinisi for an owner from Germany. It is virtually identical to our 30m Phinisi #1, and is designed for good sailing performance with a charter-friendly layout. In 2010, building was begun on Kalimantan.
38 Meter Sailing Phinisi: In 2009 we created an adaptation of the 36m Silolona. We extended the design to 38 meters on deck, added a fully capable sailing rig, and provided an interior layout better suited for use as a private yacht with ample room for guests. Here, a generous owner's stateroom is located aft on the main deck. Forward, the guest accommodations are equally divided into four luxury cabins. In late 2009, building was begun on Kalimantan.
The KLM as a Charter Yacht
30 Meter Kapal Layar Mesin: In 2004 we were asked to develop a prototype 30 meter charter yacht, which was to be based heavily upon the very common Kapal Layar Mesin types now being used to carry cargo throughout Indonesia. Please see our 30m KLM web page for more information on this prototype design.
33 Meter Kapal Layar Mesin: In 2005, we developed this design as a preliminary study which eventually became the 36 meter KLM listed just below. Slightly smaller, and with lesser displacement, the power requirements would be less and the overall construction more economical.
36 Meter Kapal Layar Mesin: Fairly soon after that in 2005 we were asked to develop a much larger 36 meter KLM as a luxury charter yacht. With the design completed, during the summer of 2006 we went to Indonesia once again in order to loft the shape and build mould frames for this new 36m KLM. This vessel is now under construction in Kalimantan Timur (2006 to 2008). You can see this design on our 36m KLM web page.
The mission statement for this vessel has that when finished, it will be the ultimate example of what is possible with these craft. According to those who are close to the project, this is so far precisely the outcome. It is the natural result of proper design and planning, top quality indigenous boat building skills, first rate timber, hard work, a good business plan, and an owner dedicated to making this the very finest Indonesian phinisi in existence. Based on what I know of the owners, I'm quite certain this mission will be accomplished.
50 Meter Kapal Layar Mesin: We have developed a prototype 50m KLM design, also aimed at charter use in Indonesia. So far, this is a prototype design only but could easily be developed to suit a new purpose, whether as a charter vessel or private yacht.
And... two concept KLM designs in steel...!
25 Meter Lady Destiny: In 2011 I created a smaller version of the 55m Lady Destiny (below), also intended for worldwide expeditionary sailing for a family, or for luxury charters. This design draws its hull form from the KLM types mentioned above, and its rig from the traditional sailing junks of China.
55 Meter Lady Destiny: In 2009, I was asked to create a design proposal for a 55 meter sailing junk. The concept here was to create a large live-aboard world-traveling yacht for an extended family, with styling to harken back to the times of Admiral Zheng-He of China... In this case, we chose in favor of all steel construction - or optionally with a wooden superstructure. The masts... steel of course. Accommodations include a private gym and even a recording studio..! Somewhat of a departure from our traditional Indonesian designs, but very strongly influenced by the Kapal Layar Mesin overall aesthetic.
An interesting article on our work with these vessels appeared in the New York Times, called The Traditional Pinisi - And Then Some.
For complete information about the design and building process that we recommend please see the following links, or for more information please inquire.
Our articles about building an Indonesian Phinisi or KLM:
Phinisi History | Phinisi Building | The Ultimate Charter Phinisi
Sailing vs. KLM Types | A Cargo Phinisi as a Yacht...?
Phinisi and KLM designs that we have created or have planned:
30m Sailing Phinisi | 36m Phinisi, Silolona | 38m Sailing Phinisi | 50m Sailing Phinisi
30m Charter KLM | 33m Charter KLM | 36m KLM, Dunia Baru | 40m Charter KLM | 50m Charter KLM
Descriptions of our adventures with these boats:
Silolona "Homecoming" | Indonesia Boatbuilding Images
A Tern Schooner and An Arabian Dhow With Similar Wooden Structure
22m Arabian Baghala | 36m Tern Schooner
Two junk rigged KLM types for construction in steel:
25m Lady Destiny | 55m Lady Destiny
Related Articles on Boat Structure
Metal Boats for Blue Water | Aluminum vs Steel | Steel Boats | Aluminum for Boats
Metal Boat Framing | Metal Boat Building Methods | Metal Boat Welding Sequence | Designing Metal Boat Structure
Composites for Boats | The Evolution of a Wooden Sailing Type
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